标题 A review of nanocellulose as a new material towards environmental sustainability
来源期刊 Science of the Total Environment
摘要 Synthetic polymers, commonly referred to as plastics, are anthropogenic contaminants that adversely affect the natural ecosystems. The continuous disposal of long lifespan plastics has resulted in the accumulation of plastic waste, leading to significant pollution of both marine and terrestrial habitats. Scientific pursuit to seek environment-friendly materials from renewable resources has focused on cellulose, the primary reinforcement component of the cell wall of plants, as it is the most abundantly available biopolymer on earth. This paper provides an overview on the current state of science on nanocellulose research; highlighting its extraction procedures from lignocellulosic biomass. Literature shows that the process used to obtain nanocellulose from lignocellulosic biomass greatly influences its morphology, properties and surface chemistry. The efficacy of chemical methods that use alkali, acid, bleaching agents,?ionic liquids,?deep eutectic solvent?for pre-treatment of biomass is discussed. There has been a continuous endeavour to optimize the pre-treatment protocol as it is specific to lignocellulosic biomass and also depends on factors such as nature of the biomass, process and environmental parameters and?economic viability. Nanofibers are primarily isolated through mechanical?fibrillation?while nanocrystals are predominantly extracted using acid hydrolysis. A concise overview on the ways to improve the yield of nanocellulose from cellulosic biomass is also presented in this review. This work also reviews the techniques used to modify the surface properties of nanocellulose by functionalizing surface hydroxyl groups to impart desirable hydrophilic-hydrophobic balance. An assessment on the emerging application of nanocellulose with an emphasis on development of nanocomposite materials for designing environmentally sustainable products is incorporated. Finally, the status of the industrial production of nanocellulose presented, which indicates that there is a continuously increased demand for cellulose nanomaterials. The demand for cellulose is expected to increase further due to its increasing and broadening applications.